The Prospects and Challenges of Globalization and Primary Education Development in Tanzania

1. Overview of the Primary Education System and Country:
Tanzania is approximately 94,55,000 km2 and has about 60,000 km of inland water. There are 32 million people in Tanzania, with an average annual growth rate 2.8 percent. The population is 51% female. Most of the population lives on the Mainland. The rest resides in Zanzibar. The average life expectancy in the country is 50 years, and the mortality rate at 8.8%. Tourism, Agriculture, Manufacturing, Mining, Fishing and Tourism are the mainstays of the economy. About 50% of Tanzania’s GDP is contributed by agriculture, accounting for around two-thirds the country’s exports. 15.8% of the country’s GDP is contributed by tourism; 8.1% goes to manufacturing and 1.7% to mining. The school system is a 2–7-4-2-3+. It includes pre-primary, secondary education, technical and higher education, as well as ordinary secondary education. Primary school education is mandatory. Parents are required to bring their children to school to enroll. Primary instruction is in Kiswahili.

J.K. Nyerere, the first president of Tanzania, had one of his main objectives. This was to develop Tanzania’s social services as outlined in the 1967 Arusha Declaration. This goal was implemented in the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement. Its goal was to make primary education compulsory and free to all, with the goal of reaching the least privileged. Campaign-style programs and donor funding enabled large-scale improvements in the number of primary schools, teachers, and classrooms. Each village in Tanzania was equipped with a primary school by the 1980s. The gross primary school enrollment reached almost 100 percent at the end of the 1980s. However, the quality of education offered was poor. The education sector was transformed by the operation of the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) in 2001.

2. Globalization
Different scholars may have different definitions of globalization. Cheng (2000) suggests that globalization could refer to the transfer of knowledge, values, and technology across different countries and societies. Globalization is characterized by the growth of global networks (e.g. Internet, worldwide e-communication and transportation, global transfer and interflow of technological, economic and social areas, international alliances, competitions, international collaboration, exchange, global village and multi-cultural integration and the use of international benchmarks and standards are some of the most common characteristics associated with globalization. Also see Makule (2008), MoEC (2000).

3. Globalization and Education
Globalization in education can refer to the same meanings as concern and concern. But it is most particularly all key words that are related to education. Dimmock & Walker (2005) state that education is also affected by a changing world. Each nation faces a new empirical challenge in coping with this new order. This responsibility falls within the national. Given the inequalities in economic and cultural levels around the globe, globalization seems positive for others and vice versa. These forces are imposed from the outside in most developing countries and are unquestionably implemented because they lack sufficient resources to do so (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson 2004).

It is often misunderstood that globalization does not have an impact on education, as traditional methods of delivering education are still being used within a nation. It has been shown that globalization is still transforming the world economy. However, powerful ideologies can also reshape the education system in different ways (Carnoy 1999; Carnoy and Rhoten 2002). Some trends increase education access, equity, and quality, while others alter the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (2000) argue that decentralization in education is a global trend that allows for reforms at all levels of educational leadership and management. Decentralization allows different levels of education management to make decisions about the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999), further demonstrates that global ideologies as well as economic changes are becoming increasingly intertwined within international institutions that broadcast specific strategies for educational improvement. These include the western governments, multilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004,). These agencies also develop global policies and transfer them via conferences, funds and other means. Globalization is a powerful force that has influenced many education reforms, and more specifically the reforms in school leadership.